Kafkas Diasporasi http://kafkasdiasporasi.com/ Mon, 06 Dec 2021 17:29:02 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8 http://kafkasdiasporasi.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/kafkas-diasporasi-icon-150x150.png Kafkas Diasporasi http://kafkasdiasporasi.com/ 32 32 What Powell Might Say About the Fed Instead of “Transient Inflation” – Quartz http://kafkasdiasporasi.com/what-powell-might-say-about-the-fed-instead-of-transient-inflation-quartz/ Mon, 06 Dec 2021 17:29:02 +0000 http://kafkasdiasporasi.com/what-powell-might-say-about-the-fed-instead-of-transient-inflation-quartz/

The job description of the central banker demands a subtle sense of semantics: a misplaced word or a phrase misused can move markets and tip economies. This holiday season, it seems, Jerome Powell, Chairman of the US Federal Reserve, will be spending his days reflecting on the meaning of the word “transient.”

Until 2021, as the world struggled to recover from the covid-19 pandemic, Powell and other Fed officials described the price hike as part of a transient inflation pattern. But on November 30, Powell said he wanted to withdraw the word. He was not doing his job, he explained during his testimony before the Senate Banking Committee. “Now is probably a good time to take that word out and make it clearer what we mean.”

The debate around inflation this year has revolved around the “transitory” and its interpretations; those outside the wobbly world of economics seem to infer quite a different meaning from Powell’s. The tension shows how difficult it is to communicate what is happening to prices during a pandemic that has shifted consumer demand from services to goods and blocked global supply chains. But it also shows the limits of the English language to describe the complex and abstract phenomenon of inflation.

What does transitory inflation mean?

The Fed used the term “transient” to suggest that rising prices at the current rate would not leave “a permanent mark in the form of higher inflation,” Powell said. Economists have split into a “transitional” team and a “persistent” team to determine whether or not high inflation will last beyond the pandemic pressures that support the supply chain. But too often, said Powell, people interpret the word as a signal of duration: “a sense of [the] of short time.”

And since brevity is in the eyes of the beholder, the Fed’s repeated use of the word “transient” has started to stir up impatience. In October, Urban Dictionary provided its own definition of ‘transient’: ‘Word used by the Federal Reserve to describe’ perpetual ‘.

It’s not as if Powell is rethinking what the ongoing price hikes mean. “Basically his perspective hasn’t changed on what’s going to happen to inflation next year,” said David Beckworth, a former international economist at the US Treasury Department. “The problem is, transient for many means that inflation would rise for a few months this year, then decline for a few months, and if that’s the popular definition, then yes, transient has passed its lifespan.”

We need a different adjective for inflation

For most economists who talk about transitory inflation, the intention is to describe something transitory and impermanent, Beckworth said. When the pandemic subsides, they want to make it clear, inflation will fall back to close to the Fed’s target of 2% inflation on an annual basis. So what’s the right word to describe it?

Beckworth didn’t come up with a phrase or word to sum it all up. Riccardo Trezi, former Fed and European Central Bank (ECB) economist, suggested: “You can call it the inflation trend, core inflation, inflation expectations,” pointing out that the Main problem with “transient” is that the word “doesn’t communicate how persistent something can be. “

Across the Atlantic, Christine Lagarde, President of the ECB, uses the word “temporary”. But another term, closer to Powell’s meaning, appeared in remarks Philip Lane, the ECB’s chief economist, made last month. “This period of inflation is very unusual and temporary, and is not a sign of a chronic situation,” Lane said. The term “non-chronic” captures something of the Fed’s idea: that inflation today is not systemic, and will not persist for long.

German has words for everything, even to describe inflation

Or maybe Powell could take inspiration from other languages. He could deploy a standard Mexican delay tactic and use the phrase al ratito (link in Spanish) literally “in a little while”, but technically an indefinite part of time which could be at any time in the future. Or Powell could tell the public that high inflation will stop rising at such a rapid rate ahorita (Spanish) – which might be now, later, or never – the ultimate vague answer.

Daniel Hole, director of the Institute for German Studies and Linguistics at the University of Stuttgart, suggested vorübergehend, which literally means “to overtake” in German. “It suggests brevity in a lot of cases, but it doesn’t strictly imply it,” Hole said. Prices, Powell might say, are probably nur vorübergehend rising; they will eventually come down.

Another German word, the evocative zwischenzeitigconnotes a “meanwhile,” said Henrike Lähnemann, professor of medieval German literature and linguistics at the University of Oxford. Like an interregnum, zwischenzeitig involves a phase between more stable periods. The United States has experienced years of inflation below 1% and will return to a rate close to 2%, a Fed statement could point out, adding that prices are only experiencing a zwischenzeitigen rise.

Lähnemann came up with another sentence, I am Schwebezustand, meaning “in a state of suspense”. When it comes to waiting for prices to drop – or even for the pandemic to end, or for supply chain issues to resolve themselves – Americans are certainly im Schwebezustand. Just like Powell, surely, by wanting to stop talking about inflationary pressures at all.

Did Eric Kandel rest on his laurels? No http://kafkasdiasporasi.com/did-eric-kandel-rest-on-his-laurels-no/ Mon, 06 Dec 2021 10:08:52 +0000 http://kafkasdiasporasi.com/did-eric-kandel-rest-on-his-laurels-no/

Eric Kandel at a ceremony in Vienna in November 2019.Credit: APA-PictureDesk GmbH / Shutterstock

There is life after the Nobel Prize Eric Kandel Columbia Univ. Press (2021)

In 1996, Denise Kandel warned her husband that if he won the Nobel Prize for his pioneering work on memory, it should be later than sooner. Laureates too often become socialites, she warned, and stop contributing to the intellectual life of science.

Barely four years later, Eric Kandel shared the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. He was then 71 years old, an age where he could have legitimately rested on his laurels. But rest is not one of Kandel’s many assets. His new book, There is life after the Nobel Prize, describes her accomplishments over the past two decades – numerous enough to allay Denise’s fears, he writes. It’s hard to disagree.

The volume adds to Kandel’s respected literary work, which ranges from textbooks in neuroscience to highly original popular science. But it’s light and looks like a coda. There he summarizes his post-Nobel research (on learning and memory deficits in drug addiction, schizophrenia and aging), writing and public awareness. And he thanks his colleagues and sponsors for his long career, especially the Howard Hughes Medical Institute in Chevy Chase, Maryland, and Columbia University in New York, where he remains a professor and institute director. A more complete and poignant autobiography can be found in Kandel’s 2006 book In search of memory. There, he explains why his traumatic childhood in Austria led him to study the mechanisms of memory. This book also presents a wonderful history of neuroscience.

Give sense

Kandel was born in 1929 in Vienna. Her family was Jewish and owned a toy store. When Hitler annexed Austria in 1938, his parents began their one-year effort to emigrate. They finally arrived in New York City shortly before the outbreak of World War II, physically unharmed but psychologically traumatized.

The incidents of the past year in Vienna have been etched in Kandel’s brain: the burning of synagogues in Kristallnacht in November 1938, the eviction of the family apartment just days after his ninth birthday, the fact of being rejected by his school friends and brutalized by neighborhood bullies. Such memories would suddenly go into his consciousness years later.

His desire to make sense of his experience led him to study history at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where he won a scholarship. There, a girlfriend introduced him to psychoanalysis. Believing that this new way of analyzing patterns of mind and memory might give him the understanding he was looking for, he entered New York University medical school.

Disillusionment with the non-empirical nature of psychoanalysis sets in quickly. Kandel realizes that progress requires going back to basics. In the 1950s, he joined pioneering neuroscientists studying the physiology of the brain, such as the electrical properties of neurons. Kandel went even further. Deciding exactly how neurons facilitate learning and memory required study in a very simple organism and very simple learning-dependent behavior, he decided.

The reductionist approach he chose – the protective reflex of gill removal in the sea slug Aplysia – raised eyebrows. Most neuroscientists believed that simple invertebrates could never elucidate the complexities of mammalian memory systems. In fact, Kandel discovered that as the slug learned what environmental conditions forced it to suck in its gills for protection, its synapses – structures that allow electrical or chemical signals to pass between neurons – were modified.

He then described the neural circuits and molecular biology involved in the short and long term memory of slugs. Determining these principles won him the Nobel Prize, and they have been found to be true for all creatures, including humans. Post-Nobel, he studied memory in higher organisms, including mice, producing large-scale articles until he was 80 years old.

The Nobel experiment broadened Kandel’s horizons beyond experimental science. The success of In search of memory awakened in him the desire for wider communication. I met him in Vienna in 2008, when a German language documentary based on this book was about to have its premiere (Nature 453, 985; 2008). Radiant with energy, he had started to make peace with his hometown.

His new book tells how, after the award, Austrian President Thomas Klestil made overtures. Kandel initially repelled them, claiming he considered himself a Jewish American scientist. But he then proposed that Klestil pay homage to him by hosting a symposium at the University of Vienna on Austria’s response to the Nazi doctrine of National Socialism and its implications for science and the humanities. Since this symposium in 2003, Kandel has acted as an advisor to a few Austrian neuroscience organizations. “My relationship with Austria is getting more and more comfortable, although it still has some way to go,” he writes.

Since the 1960s he has collected 20th-century German and Austrian Expressionist art, an interest that led him to his 2012 book The age of insight: The quest to understand the unconscious in art, the mind and the brain, from Vienna 1900 to the present day. This superb volume sheds light on the period when modernists of all shades were interested in the inner workings of the mind. Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis; novelist Arthur Schnitzler pioneered the inner monologue storytelling; expressionist artists such as Gustav Klimt, Oskar Kokoschka and Egon Schiele represented subjective emotions. Kandel guides readers through this cultural history and describes how the neuroscience of perception explains much of our intuitive understanding of art. He embodies the breadth of Kandel’s vision. There was a life after the Nobel Prize.

Competing interests

The author declares no competing interests.

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RB Leipzig let down Jesse Marsch, but the “crisis” is on their own | Sportsman | German football and major international sports news | DW http://kafkasdiasporasi.com/rb-leipzig-let-down-jesse-marsch-but-the-crisis-is-on-their-own-sportsman-german-football-and-major-international-sports-news-dw/ Sun, 05 Dec 2021 19:41:15 +0000 http://kafkasdiasporasi.com/rb-leipzig-let-down-jesse-marsch-but-the-crisis-is-on-their-own-sportsman-german-football-and-major-international-sports-news-dw/

Jesse Marsch had spent seven years preparing for the top job at RB Leipzig, but in the end it all ended in the blink of an eye. The man who rose through the Red Bull system in New York and Salzburg as head coach, and Leipzig as assistant, had struggled since taking over from Julian Nagelsmann this summer .

Leipzig pulled the plug after a 2-1 loss in Berlin to the Union, which followed back-to-back league losses to Bayer Leverkusen and Hoffenheim. Those three losses were compounded by a streak of results that had seen them win only once in their last seven league games, leaving them 11th in the table, but just five points from the coveted top four.

Set up to fail

RB Leipzig CEO Oliver Mintzlaff, the man who pulled the trigger for Marsch’s reign on Sunday morning, was not thrilled with Leipzig’s presentation in Berlin on Friday, calling the performance “catastrophic”, ” sorry ”and“ really, really bad ”.

Harsh words given that Marsch was, at least in part, doomed.

Defenders Ibrahima Konate, left, and Dayot Upamecano have been allowed to leave RB Leipzig in the same transfer window

Marsch inherited Nagelsmann’s squad minus his two first-class center-backs Dayot Upamecano and Ibrahima Konate, whose departures from Leipzig were sanctioned in the same transfer window this year.

While striker Andre Silva was a shrewd pickup, Leipzig never adequately replaced Timo Werner’s goals, and the man they loaned out last season, Patrick Schick, was allowed to join. Bayer Leverkusen, where he is the spearhead of their progression towards the classification. third. And with Daniel Olmo injured recently, Leipzig relied heavily on Christopher Nkunku, who reached new heights under Marsch.

“We have a squad that are certainly in the top three or four in the Bundesliga,” said an optimistic Mintzlaff. DAZN after Friday’s loss. “It’s our belief.”

Marsch’s cause wasn’t helped by their untimely Champions League exit after just four games, but would Leipzig ever progress from a group that also included Manchester City and PSG?

For Mintzlaff, the main concern was the national form of Leipzig – but the club’s CEO did not accept any responsibility when asked about developments on German television on Sunday morning.

“We started the season with great conviction and with a very, very good feeling, a great team,” said Mintzlaff. Sport1 show Doppelpass. “But it turned out that it wasn’t the perfect match between the coach and the team, and of course that’s really disappointing.”

Oliver Mintzlaff, CEO of RB Leipzig

RB Leipzig CEO Oliver Mintzlaff called Friday’s loss to Union Berlin “catastrophic”.

According to Mintzlaff, Marsch approached the club hierarchy to express concern that he may not be the right person to lead them.

“We realized – and not just us but also Jesse when he came to see us and said ‘I don’t know if I’m the right coach for this team, if my philosophy fits this fantastic team’ – and this achievement is maturing more and more, ”added Mintzlaff.

What future for Leipzig?

Leipzig’s next game is Tuesday at home against City in the Champions League, the last group game and the one that matters more to Leipzig than City, who are already confirmed as the group winners. If Club Brugge manages to get a better result in Paris than Leipzig against City, Leipzig won’t even have the Europa League as a consolation prize.

This responsibility will fall to the acting director of Leipzig and former Marsch assistant, Achim Beierlorzer. The former Mainz coach will take charge of the team on an interim basis, a role he filled in 2015 following the resignation of Alexander Zorniger, who left by mutual agreement after feeling undermined by the Rangnick’s imminent appointment.

For the best choice of a new coach, Leipzig may choose to bide their time. Matthias Jaissle, the 33-year-old German in charge of RB Salzburg, will be one of the names under consideration – but his lack of top-level experience will count against him.

Jesse Marsch and Ralf Rangnick kiss ahead of RB Leipzig game against PSG

Could Ralf Rangnick, left, and Jesse Marsch end up in Manchester?

Manchester calling you?

Jesse Marsch’s next move will be intriguing. After such a short tenure at Leipzig, he might want to make a quick comeback.

Manchester United could offer a perfect chance for Marsch to team up with Ralf Rangnick, who took Marsch under his wing in Leipzig and made him his assistant in 2018. Rangnick needs an assistant in Manchester and the opportunity to take a step back from your head coach position. while staying in a high profile position at Old Trafford could appeal to all parties.

Whatever happens, Marsch leaves Leipzig after a disappointing and much shorter tenure than he had dreamed of. Nagelsmann was always going to be a tough act to follow, but even he struggled to find a way to replace Werner’s goals when the club failed to reinvest in a proven striker and mount a challenge for the title during from Nagelsmann’s last season.

Other strategic mistakes in the transfer market point to the fact that while Marsch may not have been the right choice for a club that thinks he belongs to the acute end of European play, RB Leipzig’s problems are more profound as the identity of the coach. Whoever succeeds Marsch will be his fifth permanent coach in as many years, but most of all will have to be someone with a progressive vision of how the game should be played on the pitch and true to the Red Bull franchise. But sometimes even that is not enough.

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What the business school has done for me http://kafkasdiasporasi.com/what-the-business-school-has-done-for-me/ Sun, 05 Dec 2021 18:00:46 +0000 http://kafkasdiasporasi.com/what-the-business-school-has-done-for-me/

Victor Hébert

German. Saint Petersburg State University GSOM, Russia. Cems Master in International Management, 2022 graduate. Currently on exchange at Cornell University, US

What made Saint Petersburg the ideal solution for you?
I’ve always been curious to think outside the box as many of my friends and family have studied in places Germans choose more often, like London. I wanted to go places that I haven’t been to much before, if at all, to get out of my comfort zone and see how things are in different countries.

And I had a general interest in Russian culture, language and people. I’ve heard that St. Petersburg is amazingly beautiful, which it indeed is. The school also has an excellent reputation. It gives foreigners the chance to earn a government funded place, which I did, so I don’t have to pay for my study program.

In addition, the political situation between Russia and Europe is not always easy, so in the future it would be good if I could help build bridges instead of burning them. I think it’s important to have this cultural exchange.

Anne-Sofie Davenport

Anne-Sofie Davenport

Danish / Australian. Copenhagen Business School, MBA. Graduated in 2021. Partner, McKinsey, Copenhagen, Denmark

What advice would you give to people considering an MBA?
My advice is to think about the reasons why you want to do this. Whether it’s building your business toolbox, expanding your professional network, changing industries or jobs, or moving to a new country, it’s important to think through your goal so that you can focus on what counts for you throughout the MBA.

It’s a busy year and staying clear on your goals is essential to achieving them. Do your research on which schools are best for you based on your career goals and your reasons for studying an MBA. Look at the curriculum, including major subjects, leadership and personal development programs, additional tracks, and the size and diversity of the cohort.

On a practical level, research the location of the school, expected cost of living and duration of the program, and consider the overall cost of the course.

Finally, prioritize the schools you want to apply to and send your applications. You have an exciting journey ahead of you.

Ranking of the 95 best European business schools of 2021

Le Centorial business center housing the Edhec de France school © REUTERS

Find out what are the best European business schools, according to the Financial Times. Also find out how the table was compiled.

Victoria breck

Victoria breck

American / Belgian. Vlerick Business School, Executive MBA Weekend, 2021. Global Head of Cell Therapy Policy, Novo Nordisk, Brussels, Belgium

How do you apply what you learned in the course to your work?
I moved to a new job two months before starting the MBA. It was an advantage to do the MBA at the same time as starting the new job because I applied my coursework directly to the company.

During financial management, for example, I studied annual reports in detail. For the other trainings, I interviewed colleagues from different departments to understand and analyze the approach of our company.

Additionally, as a public affairs manager, it was essential for me to gain a thorough understanding of my new business. The success of the function depends on in-depth knowledge of the company and on close collaboration between many departments, including regulatory, commercial, operational and research functions.

The MBA allowed me to connect and collaborate cross-functionally in a more meaningful way across geographies and departments.

Andrea Escorcia

Andrea Escorcia

Colombian. HHL Graduate School of Management, Master of Science, finance track, graduates 2022. Intern at SpinLab – The HHL Accelerator, Leipzig, Germany

How has the Masters in Management helped your career?
It really changed my career.

I had worked for three years at the stock exchange in Colombia. Doing a master’s degree in management, especially in Germany, changed the idea I had previously of having a successful future working in a large, well-known company.

The masters at HHL have taught me that there are tons of opportunities to build a successful career by being innovative and focusing on responsibility.

I am now aware that I want to generate an impact. It starts with being a leader now and in the future. It starts with doing something in the present and understanding that it’s not just about growing in a big business, but building and helping small businesses grow.

Stefano Modini

Stefano Modini

Swiss. inside management training, including the management acceleration program. Medical Director, Anesthesiology, Thun and Bern region, Switzerland

Did something surprise you in the course?
It surprised me how easy going the business school people are.

Insead is a fountain for business and it’s the place to be, so I expected more arrogance. But it was really friendly and the teachers called us by our names.

Another surprise is the diversity of the people they choose for the program. There were 34 course participants, from 17 countries, and all held different positions and leadership profiles.

Most of the people were in fairly large positions because the program was funded by their company. It was very interesting for me as a doctor because I couldn’t understand some of the jobs they described. I had a new outlook on life: it opened my eyes and I’m happy for it.

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Iran won’t break along ethnic lines like Ethiopia http://kafkasdiasporasi.com/iran-wont-break-along-ethnic-lines-like-ethiopia/ Sat, 04 Dec 2021 17:50:12 +0000 http://kafkasdiasporasi.com/iran-wont-break-along-ethnic-lines-like-ethiopia/

Ethiopia is facing an existential crisis. Just over a year ago, Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed sparked a war against the northern Tigray state when, angered by the local government’s refusal to delay the elections, he sent the army. He believed it would be fun and, indeed, he quickly captured the state capital, Mekelle. Abiy, who like many Ethiopians resented the Popular Front for the Liberation of Tigray (TPLF) for previous abuses of power and human rights violations, sought to settle old scores. In practice, this meant targeting and killing TPLF leaders and old guard like Seyoum Mesfin, the 71-year-old and well-respected former Ethiopian foreign minister. The problem with this strategy is that, while the older TPLF leaders were once part of Ethiopia’s ruling coalition and therefore embraced Ethiopian nationalism, young Tigrayans have little interest in being part of Ethiopia; many would prefer independence. It might be a moot concern if Abiy had won, but the Tigray Defense Forces retreated into the countryside and then staged a counterattack that routed the Ethiopian army. The Tigrayans – and a few temporary allies of appeasement among Ethiopia’s other ethnic groups – are now threatening the Ethiopian capital of Addis Ababa.

Abiy both imposed an information blackout – barely a sign of confidence – and subjected the Tigrayans in the capital to collective punishment. It is doubtful that he will be able to regain control but, even if he does, he has irreparably damaged the Ethiopian tissue. Abiy and other analysts may lament that former Ethiopian leader Meles Zenawi embraced ethnic federalism in the 1994 constitution, but the reality is that Ethiopia can now disintegrate into its constituent ethnic units. Eritrea’s independence in 1993 broke the precedent of maintaining established borders not only in Africa in general, but in Ethiopia in particular. Prepare for the Republic of Tigray, Oromia, and maybe one or two other new African states.

With Ethiopia on the brink of dissolution, some in the American political community (and perhaps also in Israel) believe Iran could follow suit. Certainly, there are similarities between Ethiopia and Iran. Both were ancient empires with a history almost contiguous to the present day. European powers attacked both states, but Ethiopia and Iran managed to resist formal colonialism. The two countries are also multiethnic and multisectary. Until a few decades ago, the CIA estimated that ethnic Persians were only a slim majority in Iran, although their Book of facts about the world their proportion was subsequently increased to around 60 per cent. Academics such as Brenda Shaffer of the Foundation for the Defense of Democracy question this convincingly, although she in turn may inadvertently exaggerate minority populations and be too quick to confuse ethnicity with identity. .

Either way, Iran shares with Ethiopia a problem of leadership detached from reality. In both countries, transitions are looming. In Ethiopia’s case, it could be a military defeat; In the case of Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, it will be death. The question then is whether Iran is following the path of Yugoslavia in the 1990s and Ethiopia in the 2020s, or if it will remain a cohesive whole.

The reality is that Iran as a whole is more resilient than its regime. History matters. Beyond the erosion of Iran’s borders by Russia and Britain during the 19th century, the country also has a long history of ethnic or regional secessionist movements. There was the Jangal movement in Gilan province from 1915 to 1921, although scholars now wonder if its leader Mirza Kuchek Khan was a secessionist. In 1924, there was an Arab revolt led by Sheikh Khazal of Mohammerah, the current Khorramshahr; Today, many Iranian Arabs believe they would have been better off if the shah hadn’t crushed the revolt in their oil-rich region. Decades after Sheikh Khazal’s revolt, the late Iraqi President Saddam Hussein used these sentiments to justify his invasion of Iran in 1980 in part to liberate “Arabia” as he called the Iranian province of Khuzestan. Soviet sponsorship of separatism in Iranian Azerbaijan led to the first real crisis of the Cold War. Simultaneously, the Kurds took advantage of Iranian weakness to declare the Republic of Mahabad, which lasted until 1946 before the central government regained control. In recent years, Baluch separatists have staged repeated attacks in the Iranian province of Sistan and Balochistan.

None of this, however, means that the dissolution of Iran along ethnic lines is inevitable, if not likely. The Iranians are after a strong central authority – both before and after the 1979 Islamic Revolution, Iran suffered a dictatorship – and many outlying provinces are taking advantage of a weak central government to strengthen their own autonomy. This same pattern has occurred throughout Iranian history, especially in the context of pre-20th century fiscal farming: Governors calculated that if the shah was too weak to force the levy of their annual tax quota, they could simply challenge central authority, keep the money, and rule the province as their own stronghold.

While Shaffer sets out the fullest and most persuasive case for asserting that ethnic minorities seek autonomy if not freedom from the Iranian state, arguments which are kryptonite to many in the Iranian studies community, she and his intellectual colleagues travelers in the political community who did not go to Iran exaggerate ethnic solidarity. Iran (or Persia, as it was called before 1935) predated the rise of ethno-nationalist states by more than a millennium. The identity and pride of Iranian nationalism, even if it is not sympathetic to the Islamic Republic, remains an important component of the Iranian patchwork. While the Islamic Republic has cracked down on both the Kurds and the Baloch, it is as much, if not more, the result of sectarian mistrust as it is of ethnic animosity. Members of other ethnicities have reached senior positions in the Iranian political hierarchy. Khamenei and former Islamic Revolutionary Guard leader Yahya Rahim-Safavi, for example, are both of Azerbaijani origin. The late head of the judiciary Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi was Arab. In any post-chaos civil conflict, members of the Revolutionary Guards and other centralizing forces are as likely to belong to minority groups as to ethnic Persians. It is a mistake to assume that ethnic solidarity permeates ethnic groups. The Azerbaijani dictatorship is also unwilling to absorb Iranian Azerbaijanis whose incorporation into the Republic of Azerbaijan could triple its population. Azerbaijani secularism can be attractive to Iranians; its dictatorship and its corruption are not.

For those who seek to thwart the ambitions of the Islamic Republic, the ethnic map is just bad politics. As with any embrace of the al-Khalq Mujahedin, a group that ordinary Iranians despise, the result of playing the ethnic card and threatening the nation itself would allow the Ayatollahs to wrap themselves in the Iranian flag. Just as Saddam’s invasion snatched defeat from the clutches of victory by allowing Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini to consolidate his Islamic Republic at a time when it was on the brink, the promotion of Azeri or Arab nationalism in Iran would be a gift for Ebrahim Raisi. The Iranians may hate their regime, but they don’t hate their country. Iran is resilient. There is a reason why no ethnic movement has succeeded. The denouement that is currently taking place in Ethiopia will not come to Iran, despite Iranian diversity.

Michael Rubin is a resident researcher at the American Enterprise Institute, where he specializes in Iran, Turkey and the wider Middle East. He also regularly gives courses at sea on conflict, culture, terrorism and the Horn of Africa in the Middle East to deployed units of the Navy and the United States Navy. You can follow him on Twitter: @ mrubin1971.

Image: Reuters.

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“Wellenbrecher” is the German word of the year in 2021 http://kafkasdiasporasi.com/wellenbrecher-is-the-german-word-of-the-year-in-2021/ Sat, 04 Dec 2021 04:04:04 +0000 http://kafkasdiasporasi.com/wellenbrecher-is-the-german-word-of-the-year-in-2021/

The last two years have been pretty much devoted entirely to the coronavirus pandemic in Germany, so it’s no surprise that, once again, a crown-themed word has been named the Word of the Year of Germany in 2021. This time it’s “Wellenbrecher”.

Define 2021 in words

Last year was the “coronavirus pandemic”. In 2021, the German Language Society (GfdS) in Wiesbaden, Hesse, chose “WellenbrecherAs his word of the year.

As GfdS CEO Andrea-Eva Ewels explained, the word is used in coastal protection to describe a protective structure like a groin, jetty or wall – a breakwater or, literally, a ” wave breakers ”. Over the past year, it has often been used to describe measures to protect the population from the coronavirus pandemic.

Word “SolidAHRität“- which was used to describe relief operations in the Ahr Valley after catastrophic flooding in western Germany this summer – took second place, and third was”Pflexit“- a coat rack (like Brexit) of the words” care (Pflege) and ‘exit’, which has been used to describe the ongoing care crisis in Germany, with thousands of caregivers leaving work due to difficult conditions or poor wages.

German words of the year 2021

For its list, the GfdS not only looks at how often a word has been used or how popular it is, but rather how important it has become over the past year and to what extent it reflects the evolution of society.

This year, the company received more than 2,000 suggestions for its list. The top 10 selected were words which, in the opinion of the jury, have linguistically determined political, economic and social life in Germany over the past year. In a year once again dominated by the pandemic, it may come as no surprise that a grand total of seven of the first 10 words are linked to the coronavirus.

The 10 German words of the year in 2021 are:

  • 1. Wellenbrecher (dike)
  • 2. SolidAHRität (solidarity, in reference to catastrophic floods)
  • 3. Pflexit (care-discharge)
  • 4. Impfpflicht (vaccine mandate)
  • 5. Ampelparteien (traffic light festivals)
  • 6. Confinementnicer (children confined)
  • 7. Booster
  • 8. freitesten (to test yourself for free, according to 3G rules)
  • 9. Triell (double triangular, linked to the debates on candidates for chancellery)
  • ten. fünf nach zwölf (noon five o’clock, that is to say on the clock of the end of the world)

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Nord Stream 2 could further sabotage German-American relations http://kafkasdiasporasi.com/nord-stream-2-could-further-sabotage-german-american-relations/ Fri, 03 Dec 2021 22:16:18 +0000 http://kafkasdiasporasi.com/nord-stream-2-could-further-sabotage-german-american-relations/