German Literature – Kafkas Diasporasi Sat, 15 Jan 2022 04:09:32 +0000 en-US hourly 1 German Literature – Kafkas Diasporasi 32 32 How JRR Tolkien became the father of fantasy Sat, 15 Jan 2022 04:09:32 +0000 On January 3, 1892, Mabel Tolkien gave birth to her first son, John Ronald Reuel, in Bloemfontein, South Africa.

Later known as JRR, he would create a literary universe that would become known around the world, making him one of the most famous writers of all time.

Tolkien’s mother, however, did not live to see her son’s success – she died when he was just 12 years old. But it was she who laid the foundation for his later career by reading him fairy tales and legends and teaching him Latin, French and German. Young JRR absorbed his mother’s stories and became fascinated with languages.

Later, he even invented his own.

Growing up in the “County”

When Mabel died, her two sons were placed in the care of Father Francis Morgans, who became their guardian. The boys grew up in a suburb of the English city of Birmingham called Sarehole. It was green, untouched and idyllic, much like the landscape where Tolkien later made his hobbits live.

John stood out as an exceptionally good student. Fascinated by the languages ​​and myths of Old English, he and some classmates from King’s Edward School founded their own semi-secret society called the Tea Club Barrovian Society, where they discussed literature and poetry.

During this time, Tolkien also began to write. It didn’t take long for him to invent his first language – which he would also do for his later novels.

Newly married and in the trenches

Tolkien first studied the classical languages ​​of Latin and Greek at Exeter College, Oxford, before turning enthusiastically to Welsh.

By this time, World War I had reached its peak, and Tolkien’s university studies were nearly complete. At 24, he was called to the front in the north of France.

Four months earlier he had married his wife, Edith. “Leaving my wife was like death for me,” he later wrote.

While many of his closest friends lost their lives in the Battle of the Somme, Tolkien survived.

He returned to Oxford and henceforth sought the tranquility of a simple life. Tolkien became a lecturer and later a professor of ancient English language and literature.

By day he lectures and by night he writes, creating a fantastic universe with its own history, cultures and languages.

From professor of literature to author of the century

Tolkien originally wanted The Hobbit be a bedtime story for her children.

He coined the word “hobbit” and imagined them as small human-like creatures with fur on their feet, who lived in caves in the verdant Shire.

He also gave hobbits some characteristics that he himself possessed: a love of nature, simple cooking, and an aversion to travel.

Many years passed before Tolkien submitted the story to a publisher.

When “The Hobbit” was published in 1937, it captivated readers of all ages and quickly gained fame.

His publisher was inundated with letters from readers hungry for a sequel.

However, it took 15 years before Tolkien published The Lord of the Rings. After all, writing was his hobby, not his profession.

The fantasy epic “The Lord of the Rings” was published in the mid-1950s and made the British professor the author of the century. Tolkien has since become a cult figure, with ‘The Lord of the Rings’ alone selling over 150 million copies to date.

The film trilogy based on the book and directed by Peter Jackson has grossed around $3 billion and won 17 Oscars. The three films that tell the story of “The Hobbit” were also very successful.

A posthumous release

Peter Jackson, who directed “The Lord of the Rings” and “The Hobbit,” recently remastered all six films, which were released in a box set titled “Middle-earth” in fall 2021.

In June 2017, another book by Tolkien was published posthumously. “Beren and Luthien”, a love story between a mortal and an immortal elf, is one of the many works he was unable to complete and publish during his lifetime. It was actually one of Tolkien’s earliest stories – he started writing it over 100 years ago.

Both names are engraved on the joint gravestone of Tolkien and his wife Edith, who have been married for 50 years. Shortly after her death, he wrote in a letter: “I never called Edith Luthien, but she was the originator of the story.

Although the world-renowned author passed away in 1973, his stories still captivate the world today.

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How hatred of women fuels the far right Thu, 13 Jan 2022 10:45:17 +0000

When Lyndon McLeod shot dead two men and three women in a rampage that included two tattoo parlors, a hotel and a private home in Denver last month, it didn’t come out of nowhere.

In one of the novels in his self-published trilogy, he described the murder of people – and two of the characters who end up dying share names with his actual victims. McLeod was also active in online forums where he touted male supremacy and contempt for the “weak.”

Denver Police ultimately shot and killed McLeod after he shot an officer. The police department had received a warning about McLeod about a year before the shooting, from a German who was concerned after reading McLeod’s books and online chats. But in a statement released after the shooting, Denver police said they determined “there was not enough evidence to lay criminal charges or a legal basis to monitor McLeod at the time.

The ministry also told HuffPost that there were two previous police investigations into McLeod, but none resulted in criminal charges.

McLeod’s case is an example of the links between misogyny and easy access to guns that Everytown for Gun Safety highlights in a new report this week, which was shared with HuffPost prior to publication. The group documents at least six mass shootings carried out by misogyny in the United States since 2014, and the ways guns and hatred of women have served as a unifying link for many far-right groups online.

It is not a coincidence. Members of the far right generally reject liberalism in all its forms, including protections for women and other marginalized groups. Extremism experts call this trend “accelerationism” – affecting people whose beliefs are “hypermasculine, hypermisogynous and hyperracist,” said Matthew Kriner, CEO of the Accelerationism Research Consortium, a collaborative initiative that conducts extensive research about this question. .

“These anti-democratic spaces reject the premises of Western society that we have come to accept as a basis,” Kriner said. “Misogyny is emblematic of this anti-modern notion. “

Everytown’s research, compiled last year, details how male supremacist ideologies pose an increased threat to public safety, as some online communities often encourage the purchase of guns and encourage acts of violence. .

“For groups of radicalized men who see violence as a way to make their rage visible, guns are easily accessible and powerful tools. Guns can and have transformed years of hatred into deadly acts of mass violence, ”the report notes.

The report also states that supporters of far-right movements “have both adopted misogynistic attitudes and used hatred of women to recruit new supporters,” and that it is no coincidence that so many public attacks perpetrated by misogynists involve firearms.

The report also notes that a “sense of empowerment” associated with gun ownership resonates particularly in men and “can provide or reinculcate a sense of power, and is even explicitly marketed as doing so.”

Greta Jasser, a doctoral student at the UK-based Radical Right Analysis Center, said guns are closely linked to male ideals for some men.

“Owning and shooting guns is a performance of hegemonic masculinity – that is, the ‘most honored way of being a man’, which is contextual and dependent on time and place – to United States, ”she said.

Sarah Burd-Sharps, research director at Everytown for Gun Safety, said the trend was concerning.

“As long as guns continue to be readily available to people with these views and extremism is tolerated in our country, we will continue to see similar acts of armed violence,” she said.

Weapons during a Georgian Security Force III% military exercise in Flovilla, Georgia, November 12, 2016.

Mohammed Elshamy / Anadolu Agency / Getty Images

A investigation conducted by Northeastern University for the Annals of Internal Medicine, one of the most cited specialist medical journals, fSince then, arms purchases in the United States have jumped from 2020 to 2021, with 7.5 million new purchases. Of these, 5.4 million were the first purchases of firearms.

This means more homes now have guns, which the survey authors flagged as another concern as it means “Putting an additional 11.7 million people, including more than 5 million children, at risk of living in a household with firearms.”

As gun sales have increased since 1999, experts say the coronavirus pandemic, a nationwide race calculation after the George Floyd murder and insurgency on the United States Capitol on January 6, 2021, are likely contributing factors to the recent increase in firearms. Sales.

“You put that together and you have a lot of instability, insecurity and a lot of reasons for people to be motivated to find an individual sense of security in the context of a lot of things that they can’t control,” he said. said Dabney Evans, director of the Center for Humanitarian Emergencies at the Rollins School of Public Health at Emory University.

Evans, whose research focuses on gender-based violence, told HuffPost that the American culture towards individual safety and empowerment fuels division in discussions about guns.

“What worries me right now in this country is how we have a very great tension between individual liberty and liberty and community responsibility and citizenship,” said Evans.

The US government does not track the sales of firearms to civilians. Instead, the only official gun acquisition data belongs to the FBI, but it only counts the background checks performed, which do not take into account total gun sales.

“Ghost guns”, for example, are legal firearms that are sold 80% complete, often with a kit of materials needed to complete the manufacture of the firearm. The guns, which do not have a serial number, do not require owners to get background checks or record their purchases.

A December HuffPost survey found that far-right groups were using non-traditional online forums to promote 3D printed guns and share details on how to print gun parts.

These communities, both online and at in-person events, are teeming with accelerationist rhetoric and imagery. A major phantom weapons conference, Bear Arms N ‘Bitcoin, is teeming with images of the far right and white supremacists, according to extremism experts who reviewed the images provided by HuffPost. The symbols, iconography, and language of the speakers and attendees fall short of illegal hate speech, but incorporate niche far-right views.

Ragnar Lifthrasir, the conference organizer, enthusiastically promotes the narrative that American society is in decline, as well as the concept of secession from government. Although he told HuffPost he does not associate with the far right, the language and images of his events suggest otherwise, as do his own social media feeds touting history and art. Europeans who, according to extremism experts, reflect an anti-modernity and anti-liberal point of view. see. The name “Ragnar Lifthrasir” is itself an allusion to the Vikings, a standard reference for the far right.

Dr. Nathalie Van Deusen, a donkeyassociate professor of Nordic history, literature and culture at the University of Alberta, notes that Viking references are another manifestation of white supremacy and misogyny. “Traditional family values ​​and conservative gender roles play a major role in white supremacist and far-right movements, which also tend to be masculinist and male supremacist.” said Van Deusen.

Exposure to hateful and exclusionary images plays a major role in online radicalization, according to the Everytown report. The organization has identified an overlap between misogyny and white supremacy in what is known as the “manosphere,” an online community of men who reject modern notions of feminism and bond with shared misogynistic values.

“In addition to the fact that these attitudes are common in online spaces, they are also observable among many abusers whose violence was motivated by hate,” the report says.

Everytown also noted that many shooters who identified with these ideologies were inspired by a 2014 shootout in Isla Vista, Calif., In which Elliot Rodger stabbed his two roommates and a third man in his apartment before taking himself out. go to a sorority house at the University of California, Santa Barbara. There he shot three women, killing two, before continuing his rampage in a delicatessen. A total of six people were killed and 14 others were injured. After exchanging gunshots with law enforcement, Rodger committed suicide and died.

In an online manifesto published before the shooting, Rodger said he chose the sorority because the girls there were the “hottest”. Rodger has been revered as a hero in online “incel” communities – a self-assigned misogynistic term meaning “unintentionally celibate.”

Rodger’s manifesto also reflected the confluence of guns and hatred for women detailed in the Everytown report: “My first act of preparation was the purchase. [of] my first handgun… After picking up the handgun, I brought it back to my room and felt a new sense of power. I was now armed, ”the manifesto reads.

Everytown also cited an aunt of Veronika Weiss, a 19-year-old freshman Rodger, who was shot and killed (the report did not include the aunt’s full name).

“Anytime I read or hear about a murderer or an incel plot, I know the crime was inspired by the person who murdered my niece,” she told Everytown. “The more I’ve learned over the years from cases in the news, the more I think it’s so important to get the guns out of the hands of these young men.”

RTL Today – Calling all bookworms: The Green Library; The first second-hand bookstore in Luxembourg Tue, 11 Jan 2022 09:24:32 +0000 The very first second-hand bookstore in Luxembourg promotes sustainability, a circular economy and affordable access to education.

Was your New Year’s resolution to find out more? Well you’re in luck, because the very first Luxembourg second-hand bookstore has launched online under the name The Green Library.

The Green Library offers the people of Luxembourg the opportunity to buy and sell pre-loved books, while encouraging sustainability and the joys of reading.

From the first month of launch, the online bookstore already had more than 150 volumes in English, French and German. Unlike traditional bookstores, The Green Library offers customers the opportunity to earn money from the sale of their pre-loved literature.

The initiative helps reduce waste while making education more accessible, as books are sold up to 50% cheaper than new editions. Purchased books are shipped right to your door in convenient, recycled packaging, which means buying a book has never been easier or more environmentally friendly!

“I found the solution when I realized there was no simple, local option to buy or sell your used books. I found it incredible that no one in Luxembourg has yet created this kind of initiative. After thinking for a month, I decided to get started on the project. We have already been contacted by over 20 people to sell their books in our store within the first month. »Irina Roman, founder of The Green Library.

The Green Library aims to become the Luxembourg reference for books. With the reuse and resale market booming in recent years, it is only a matter of time before more retailers turn to a more circular economy.

You can consult The Green Library’s online bookstore at

We will have an in-depth interview in the coming weeks.

Non-sensual similitudes: language, poetics and psychiatry Sun, 09 Jan 2022 17:10:02 +0000

Walter Benjamin (1892-1940) is widely regarded as the most important theoretician of German-speaking culture of the first half of the 20th century.1 During an intellectual career that crossed and combined Jewish mysticism and political Marxism, he maintained high productivity despite long-standing depressive tendencies, but ultimately committed suicide when his desperate escape from the Nazis was frustrated.2 Although virtually unknown to psychiatrists, the key importance in his thinking of the concept of “experience” – whether immediate, remembered, degraded or fulfilling, etc. – makes it relevant.3.4

Here, by way of introduction, I refer to his short essay “On the mimetic faculty”.5 Written in 1933 and published only posthumously, it is elegantly constructed and compact. With its 2 and a half pages, it is more suggestive than conclusive. Attentive to both the figurative and lexical nature of the language, one of the author’s main concerns was its veracity, whether in reading, speaking, scripting or in any other form.

Imitation, evidently in the form of mimicry, is a natural phenomenon. It suggests a “reading” of the environment resulting in a correspondence between the organism and the environment. Writing before the discovery of DNA, Benjamin proposed that it was based on the perception of “non-sensual similarities,” another key concept to him although it has never been operationally defined. Dance (towards the stars) was also one of the earliest forms of reading, embodying the meaning and conviction of truth. The trust was justified, because it had to have an evolutionary survival value. Therefore, although entirely non-verbal, the dance has a content of truth. Over time, however, both the organism and the environment have changed, and dance and related community practices (eg, worship rituals) have lost their persuasiveness and usefulness. If some early forms of reading atrophied, others have emerged. Reading the firmament had a survival value for a hunting and migrating species. The naturally acquired fascination with the sky then led to astrology and, later, astronomy and physics, contributing to previously unimaginable knowledge and manipulation of nature.

Benjamin was excited by the promise of the technology, but anxious that any decline in the ability to perceive non-sensual similarities impoverishes the experience. Alluding to the theory that words have an onomatopoeic origin – even all words, according to some – he hypothesized that the language also embodied non-sensual similarities:

“If words meaning the same in different languages ​​are arranged around this signified as their center, we must ask ourselves how they all are, although often not having the slightest similarity to each other, are similar to the signified in their center.

A beloved analogy was that of forming the beautiful image of a mosaic by combining fragments, with each fragment appearing insignificant to the whole, but vital to completion. Benjamin was very interested in the hieroglyphics understood as such fragments, and curious about the then contemporary scholarly theories according to which they were digits of an almost mystical code. The script is an “archive” of non-sensual similarities – works of art, too.

While contemporary psychiatrists are prepared to engage with Benjamin’s evocative, partly poetic, suggestions, all of this underscores the rather uncomfortable poverty of DSM language – as well as the limited ‘vocabularies’ of phenomenology and brain imaging, even genetics, versus the fullness of experience. Because the similarity appears “like lightning,” we have to be attentive to words, behavior, and lab results, but something is missing if we do not use our mimetic faculty to immerse ourselves more fully in the world of. our patients in order to appreciate the non-sensual similarities. : learn to “dance” together “to read what has never been written”. As ‘the play is to a large extent his school’, and not the classroom, the mimetic faculty is also available to patients – sometimes more – and, for better or for worse, it also colors their experience of playing. what their psychiatrist looks like.

As the humanities are more important than ever in our scientific age,6.7 We will explore questions relating to Benjamin, poetics, experience, truth, and psychiatry in future publications.8-10

Dr Ikkos is a physician licensed to practice by the General Medical Council of the United Kingdom, with a Certificate of Completion of Specialized Training in General Adult Psychiatry (General Medical Council number 2729800). His contributions to psychiatry include being co-author of the current European Psychiatric Association Guidance on Roles and Responsibilities of Psychiatrists. In 2014, he was elected Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Psychiatrists. He does not report any known conflict of interest.

The references

1. Eiland, H, Jennings, MW. Walter Benjamin: A critical life. Harvard University Press; 2016.

2. Ikkos G. Almost Avoidable Suicide: Walter Benjamin (July 15, 1892 – September 26, 1940) – Psychiatry in Literature. Brother J Psychiatry. 2020; 217 (6): 709-709.

3. Ross A. The Child. In: Revolution and History in Walter Benjamin: A Conceptual Analysis. Routledge; 2020.

4. Ikkos G. Enriching experience: Walter Benjamin – psychiatry in philosophy. Brother J Psychiatry. 2021; 219 (1): 367-367.

5. Benjamin W. On the mimetic faculty. In: Jennings MW, Eiland H, Smith G. eds. Walter Benjamin: Selected Writings, Vol. 2: Part 2. Harvard University Press; 1990.

6. Datta F. The humanities more important than ever in the age of scientific psychiatry. Am J Psychiatry Resid J. 2016; 11 (3) 2-2.

7. Ikkos G, Bouras N. Epilogue: spirit, state, society and “our psychiatric future”. In: Ikkos G, Bouras N. eds. Mind, State and Society: Social History of Psychiatry and Mental Health in Britain 1960-2010. Cambridge University Press; 2021.

8. Ikkos G, Stanghellini G. Walter Benjamin: brooding and melancholy. Brother J Psychiatry. In press, 2022.

9. Ikkos G, Stanghellini G. Charles Baudelaire (1821-1867): spleen and the city. Submitted for publication, 2022.

10. Stanghellini G, Ikkos G. C Baudelaire (1821-1867), W Benjamin (1892-1940), and the social aesthetics of psychiatry and mental health. Chapter in preparation, 2023.

Bucks County New Years Career Fair next week at Neshaminy Mall Sat, 08 Jan 2022 02:23:18 +0000

The New Year is the perfect time for a fresh start. If you’re unemployed or looking for a better opportunity, gather your resume, dress to impress, and head to the Bucks County New Years Career Fair on Wednesday January 12 at the Neshaminy Mall.

I saw on Facebook that it is hosted by Recruitment Queen. Representatives from nearly two dozen companies will be ready to meet with you from 11 a.m. to 2 p.m. in the Barnes and Noble courtyard.

Companies looking to hire include Amazon, Better Home Care, Double H Plastics, Delta-T Group, Holy Redeemer Health System, A-Team Home Care Inc., American Heritage Credit Union, Veltri Inc., Traffic Plan, Centennial School District , Brian’s House, Inc., Moldamatic, The First National Bank and Trust Co. of Newtown, Westmont Hospitality Group, Pickering Manor, and Northeast Building Products.

Over 300 jobs are available in the following fields:

Customer service, transportation, health care, mental health, call center, orderlies, administration, billing, finance, nursing, cashiers, office, dispatch, drivers, laborers, industrial, social work, manufacturing, health behavioral, sales, maintenance, etc.

I’m sure there is something that interests you.

Don’t pass up this incredible opportunity. Register here. Make known.

Good luck!

READ MORE: See 50 remote jobs that can pay well

KEEP WATCHING: See What 50 Company Logos Looked Like Then and Today

3 things to do today in Bangalore Thu, 06 Jan 2022 00:30:00 +0000

Dance show

Inspired by the great architectural wonders of southern India, in particular the Vijayanagara empire, Sthavara-Jangama explores the amorphous relationships we humans have with the landscapes and built architectures that surround us. By placing live actions of dancers and musicians in selected areas of the hall and digitally processed moving images created by a German artist projected onto the walls, this site-inspired piece promises to be a time travel experience. for spectators.

Where: Bangalore International Center (BIC) No. 7, 4th Main Rd, Stage 2, Domlur; When: January 7, 6:30 p.m .;
Ticket price: from Rs 300

Remember Dr Rachid Jahan

Online Theater Festival – IV managed and hosted by the Theater Management Company Exhibitions Urdu Mehfil on Dr Rashid Jahan (The bad girl in Urdu literature). Jahan was the first Urdu feminist writer to write openly about how women in our society are repressed. The session would be taken by Annie zaidi, Sikandar Khan, and Gargée Nandy.

Where: Online. Details: + 91-7597523702;
When: January 7 at 7 p.m. Ticket price: Rs 99

Learn about composting

Learn the incredible art of composting where nature shows us how recycling is done in this workshop! Learn about the different types of composting, what to keep in mind when choosing a composter, how to really get started with aerobic composting, and some simple tips for beginners to keep in mind.

Where: Online. Details:;
When: January 8, 11 a.m.

The English Language Journey from London to Lal Chowk – Kashmir Reader Sat, 01 Jan 2022 19:39:00 +0000

There is a huge craze for the English language throughout the valley. The people of Kashmir not only regard it as a language but rather flaunt it as precious jewels. They use it to impress each other and also to reprimand and express rage. When a Kashmir is set ablaze, whether or not it has been to school before, it is heard shouting “Who the hell are you?” , “Get lost”, “watch your mouth”, “nonsense”, etc. The English language originated in England about fifteen centuries ago and it reached Kashmir only a century ago. Although he reached the valley late, the people of the valley are moving there with tremendous speed.
Human beings need to communicate with each other for many reasons and their medium is called language. There are approximately seven thousand languages ​​spoken in the word today. Some languages ​​have billions of speakers while others have only a few thousand. The largest languages ​​in the world, in terms of speakers, are Chinese, English, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, French, Arabic, Hindustani, Japanese, and Bengali. The world’s largest languages ​​in terms of dictionary entries [vocabulary] are Korean, Portuguese, Finnish, Kurdish, Tamil, Swedish, Icelandic, English, Italian and Japanese.
Although it is possible to count the number of entries in a dictionary, it is not possible to count the number of words in a language. According to the history books, our planet Earth is 4.54 billion years old and the first human beings appeared on Earth only 300,000 years ago. They began speaking the language around 50,000 to 150,000 years ago when they began to write around 3000 BCE. In other words, oral proficiency is thousands of years older than written proficiency. Languages ​​keep appearing and disappearing. They are like their speakers: they are born, evolve, reach their peak, weaken and eventually die. There is no guarantee that the most popular language today will not be non-existent in the next century. Sanskrit and Latin were spoken by millions of people only a few centuries ago, but unfortunately these languages ​​are officially dead today. As stated above, there is a huge craze for the English language in Kashmir as well as in the world but this language did not even exist fifteen centuries ago. Men come, reign for a while, then disappear. Languages ​​too.
England is the homeland of the English language which is spoken by around two billion people around the world. The nation that is now called United Kingdom / England was inhabited by a branch of Indo-Europeans called “Celts”. The Celts settled in the 6th / 7th century BC and the language they spoke then was also called “Celts”. The Romans invaded the Celts in 43 CE and ruled them until 410 CE. Since the Romans spoke Latin, their language influenced the Celts to some extent. The Romans made a great contribution to the art, culture, history, architecture and development of England. The city of London was built by the Romans. When the Romans left England, a few German tribes (Angles, Saxons, Jutes) were invited to England to help the English people fight the Vikings. The Vikings were ruthless, cruel, barbaric and brutal people. During this period, different communities living in the land of England spoke different languages. They needed a common means of communication and this need gave birth to the English language. They also followed different religions, but they were all converted to Christianity in 597 CE. Thus, the English people were united with a common language, English, and a common religion, Christianity.
The reign of the German tribes later ended with the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE and the time between 410 CE and 1066 CE is known as the OLD ENGLISH PERIOD in history. The Battle of Hastings took place on October 14, 1066 CE between the Franco-Norman army of William, Duke of Normandy, and an English army led by the Anglo-Saxon king, Harold Godwinson. The English army is defeated and William becomes King of England. The army (Norman-French army) was also of German origin. A long time ago, a German tribe had settled in France at a place called ‘Normandy’. The same tribe seized power and defeated the English army in 1066 CE. The Conquest ended the Old English period and ushered in the Middle English period in England. These Normans introduced the feudal system to England and they spoke French and Latin. They have greatly enriched the vocabulary of the English language, influenced its syntax and grammar, and helped it strengthen.
In 1362 CE, English became the language of the English parliament. The time between 1066 CE and 15th century CE is known as the Middle English period in history. The period of Modern English began when Queen Elizabeth I began to reign and William Shakespeare began to write plays and poetry. The King James version of the Bible was published and the reform movement began. The Great Vowel Shift was launched to reform spelling, pronunciation, etc. of the English language. In addition, the British began to rule the world and they spread the English language around the world through colonial and missionary activities. They took him to the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and many smaller former British colonies such as India, Pakistan, parts of Africa and elsewhere.
Although the British did not directly colonize the Kashmir Valley, they nevertheless came as missionaries and established hospitals, churches and schools, mainly near the main town in the valley known as Srinagar. Thus, the English language was born and raised in England, traveled with the East India Company to India and arrived in the valley in the last quarter of the 19th century. The first English middle school, Tyndale Biscoe School, was opened by missionaries in 1876 CE at Lal Chowk in the heart of Srinagar. J Hilton Knowles was Tyndale Biscoe’s first director and he held the post from 1876 to 1880. He is also the author of a “Dictionary of Kashmiri Proverbs and Sayings” (1880) and “Kashmiri Folk Tales” “(1893). In addition, Sir Walter Roper Lawrence was appointed as a school commissioner for Jammu and Kashmir between 1889 and 1894 during the reign of Maharaja Pratap Singh and he wrote the book “The Valley of Kashmir” in 1895 CE, which is known as the first Kashmiri encyclopedia written in English.
Another school where Kashmiris could access a modern education and learn English was the Saint Joseph School of Baramulla, established in 1903. Other famous schools in English include the Mallinson Girls’ School. [Est 1912], Presentation Convent High School [Est 1936], Burn room [Est 1956], Pampore Muslim Educational Institute [1970], New Convent [1986], British School of Srinagar [1998], and Delhi Srinagar Public School [2003]. There are around fifteen thousand schools across Jammu and Kashmir at present (year 2021). In addition, the first college established in Kashmir was Sri Pratap College Srinagar. It was founded in 1905 CE by Dr Annie Basant. The same college was divided into Amar Singh College Srinagar and Sri Pratap College Srinagar in 1942 CE. Thanks to Almighty God, there are now more than 66 colleges in the valley (year 2021). The first university in the Kashmir Valley is “University of Kashmir”, opened in 1948. Its twin, “Jammu University”, was opened in 1969. The University of Kashmir has, in the currently, several campuses in various parts of the valley. Other universities which provide higher education in Kashmir are SKUAST – Kashmir [Est 1982], IUST – Awantipora [2005], Central University of Kashmir [2009], Srinagar Cluster University [2016], NIT Srinagar [1960], GMC Srinagar [1959], etc. There are now more than a dozen functioning universities in Kashmir. There must be many more schools, colleges and universities in Kashmir providing technical, vocational and advanced education to the youth of Kashmir.
According to the 2011 census, the literacy rate in Jammu and Kashmir was 67.16%. The literacy of men was then 76.75%, while the literacy of women was 56.43%. According to one estimate, around 5% of the people of Kashmir are fluent in English and around 20% of them easily read and understand books and newspapers written in an easy English language. There are 171 logs [dailies, weeklies, fortnightlies] published in Jammu and Kashmir and most of them are published in English. Some nationally and internationally renowned Kashmiri authors who write in English include Aga Shahid Ali [1949-2001], Hari Kunzru [born 1969], Basharat Pir [born 1977], Mirza Waheed, Shahnaz Bashir, Shafi Ahmad, Nayeema Mehjoor, Zooni Chopra and more than a dozen others. Honestly speaking, the first English speaking schools were opened in Kashmir by foreigners. They were also the ones who wrote the first books in English on Kashmir. But the people of Kashmir are now sufficiently capable of writing books in English and running schools in English.
Although the English-speaking plant was sown late in Kashmir, it still spreads its roots and branches at an incredible rate. The day is not far off when the books written by Kashmiris in the English language will be available in the international market, Kashmiri-English literature will be taken seriously all over the world and the English language will be the biggest language in the valley of the Cashmere. No obstacle is high enough to deter the efficient leopards of the valley. It doesn’t matter how late they start to run; they finish all the races first.

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‘Fun fact’ about Steph Curry’s Hebrew tattoo is causing a stir on Twitter – J. Wed, 29 Dec 2021 22:01:33 +0000

Earlier this month, Golden State Warriors superstar Steph Curry set a new NBA record for most 3-point hoops when he gutted No. 2,974 in a game against the Knicks from New York. On December 28, he reached number 3,000 in front of his audience at the Chase Center in San Francisco. That night, he also tied his own record of 157 straight games with at least one made 3.

As social media users and the media celebrated and analyzed the future Hall of Fame’s 3-point prowess, a local Warriors fan had something else on his mind.

On December 27, Graduate Theological Union Assistant Professor Sam Shonkoff shared a very Jewish “fun fact” about Curry on Twitter that garnered quite a bit of attention. In his tweet, he pointed out that the Hebrew word tattooed on Curry’s left wrist, קרי (kuf-resh-yud), is both a transliteration of the player’s last name as well as a well-known Talmudic euphemism for ” accidental emission ”or“ ejaculation during sleep. ”

The tweet received over 300,000 impressions, or views, and dozens of responses ranging from 😂 to 😳.

Sam shonkoff

“It clearly struck a chord, more than my work on Jewish mysticism,” Shonkoff told J. in an interview. “I’m in a very specific niche where I’m a huge fan of Warriors and I love Steph Curry, and at the same time I’m a specialist in Jewish studies. This is probably why I noticed this thing before most of the others.

Shonkoff, 37, explained that in rabbinical literature, the term “ba’al keri” (which literally means “master of an accident”) refers to someone who has experienced what is commonly referred to as a wet dream and therefore is considered to be in a state of ritual impurity. “It’s this huge source of anxiety in the rabbinical tradition,” he said. “It has to do with the issues of niddah – menstrual impurities – and who you can come in contact with, where you can go. “

He noted that the stakes were especially high for the high priest when the Temple was standing in Jerusalem. For example, in Pirkei Avot 5: 5, the fact that “no emission occurred to the high priest on the day of atonement” is considered some kind of miracle because the priest was able to enter the Holy of Holies and perform his homeworks. on behalf of the Jewish people.

Shonkoff, who specializes in German Jewish thought and Hasidic mysticism, said he made the connection between the transliterated name Curry and “keri” a few years ago, but only recently adopted Twitter as a place to share such wandering thoughts. Her favorite response to her tweet came from Kno, a rapper and producer with CunninLynguists. “He can shoot in his sleep so it holds true”, Kno tweeted. Others mocked “Splash Brothers,” the nickname given to Curry and his teammate Klay Thompson, another prolific 3-point shooter before he was sidelined by injuries. (Thompson, who is expected to return to the field later this season, holds one of the few 3-point records not held by Curry: most 3-pointers scored in a game, 14.)

Twitter being Twitter, not everyone liked the tweet. “Yo, I really didn’t need to know that” moaned a curry fan. A native Hebrew speaker protested that the modern Hebrew term for “wet dream” is slightly different, -לילה, “kri-lilah”. “Knowing modern Hebrew is not the same as knowing the Talmud,” Shonkoff retorted.

It is not known if Curry or people close to him saw the tweet or if they are aware of the euphemistic meaning of the tattoo. (Other members of his family have the same tattoo, including his brother and fellow NBA player Seth Curry.) “I almost feel a little bit guilty if I embarrass him, but the world now knows it. “said Shonkoff, who grew up in Berkeley. rooting for the Warriors and now lives in El Cerrito. He’s not too worried, however, as “Steph Curry is widely believed to be just a wonderful human being” and “a real mensch”.

The קרי tattoo isn’t the only Hebrew ink that Curry has on his body. On the inside of her right wrist, there is a line from the New Testament that translates to “love never fails.”

What is it about Hebrew writing that Curry, a devout Christian, finds so compelling? “He’s very religious, which is part of why I think he’s drawn to Hebrew,” Shonkoff said. “It shows that there is a feeling that Hebrew is a holy language even for Christians.”

Emphasizing the humorous double meanings of Hebrew transliterations is an old board game. Former Secretary of State and presidential candidate John Kerry has been the subject of jokes in Israel because his last name is transcribed the same way as Curry’s. And in October, when Facebook rebranded itself, people happily pointed out that Meta means “death” in Hebrew.

How the first “viral” media sparked a peasant uprising in Germany Mon, 27 Dec 2021 22:09:40 +0000

The Protestant Reformation was a period of religious and political upheaval caused by corruption in the Roman Catholic Church. With the dissolution of medieval feudalism in the early 16th century, newly proletarianized workers and peasants experienced many of the same inequalities. In the German-speaking regions of central Europe, former serfs flocked to booming cities while poor farmers were taxed and criminalized to increase the incomes of the ruling class. As Pope Leo X and the aristocracy tightened their financial grip on the German underclass, a revolutionary peasant uprising struck a major blow, fueled by the early mass media of the modern era.

The German peasant war overtook the Saxon states through Germany, Alsace and Austria. While smaller uprisings took place in previous decades, a decentralized movement organized around secular pamphleteer propaganda in the 1520s. Rebels armed with farm implements stormed castles and burned down villages. churches, threatening not only the clergy but also the princes and aristocrats who owned land. It was such a shock that they responded with a violent counterinsurgency, killing thousands of rioters in broad daylight.

The invention of the printing press broke the church’s monopoly on education and culture, allowing artisans to print low-cost large-format brochures and newspapers that combined image and text. Public readings of these works, and the ensuing debates between Christians and Protestants, replaced recitations of Scripture. Forerunner of newspapers, large formats were printed vertically and used either for distribution or for decoration. As Keith Moxey notes in his book Peasants, warriors and wives (2004), their usefulness “depended on the fragility of the paper, the effect of sunlight on the ink, and the rate at which their topical significance lost interest”.

Hans Sebald Beham, “Dispute between Luther and a Catholic Theologian” (c. 16th century), woodcut

Martin Luther used the print to his advantage, especially with his 95 theses oppose the sale of indulgences. As the princes aligned with the Pope, Luther argued for secular reform by appealing to the oppressed classes. In works of art, early Lutherans like Hans Holbein and Lucas Cranach presented him as a Herculean savior from abuse of church power. Early publications also depicted Luther confronting Christians, as in “Dispute Between Luther and a Theologian” by Hans Sebald Beham (c. 16th century). Luther leads a host of artisans and farmers, representing the grievances of the working class.

Beham and his brother, Barthel, were influenced by the master engraver Albrecht Dürer, who depicted peasants in celebratory scenes. Dürer’s prints worked against classist stereotypes that associated poverty with sin, but he retained altered facial features, illustrating what Jürgen Müller calls “aesthetic subversion.” The Beham brothers took it a step further by producing anti-church woodcuts in large-format Nuremberg newspapers, including The Pope’s Descent into Hell and Allegory of monasticism, which shows a monk turning his back on the personification of poverty in favor of pride and luxury.

Albrecht Dürer, “Dancing Peasant Couple” (1517), engraving

The spread of humanist writing coincided with the spontaneous uprisings of Bundschuh movement (“Union Shoe”), in reference to the leather boots worn by rural populations since the Middle Ages. An outpouring of Bundschuh pamphlets attacked the privileges of higher states in favor of gemeinen mann, or ordinary man. Peasants, artisans, and townspeople represented common sense, religious devotion, and proud work, in contrast to the orthodox critics of Luther working primarily in satire. the Bundschuh The symbol was painted and embroidered on flags carried by rebels, often with the slogan “Lord, uphold your divine justice” and appeared in brochures promoting or condemning them.

Pamphilus Gengenbach title page The Bundschuh (1514), a pamphlet condemning the peasant uprisings around the Black Forest

Bundschuh The literature garnered wide support from artisans, with Dürer even creating a woodcut of Black Forest insurgent leader Joss Fritz. The publication in 1521 of the anonymous pamphlet Karsthans, or “Hans of the Hoe”, featured the archetype of a commoner named Hans holding a two-tine hoe. Later posts show him carrying a flail next to the slogan Fryhans, or “Hans free”. In the woodcuts by Hans Weiditz and Hans Leonhard Schäufelein, the peasants avoid their haggard appearance in battle scenes with knights in armor. In 1525, when the uprisings overtook Swabia and Franconia, popular representations blurred the distinction between peasants and nobles.

This aesthetic change was due in part to the revolutionary preacher Thomas Müntzer, an Anabaptist who rejected the Bible and seven sacraments. Its brochures promoted the material creation of Heaven on Earth and the organization of trade unions. Based in Zwickau, Müntzer is said to have inspired the 12 Peasants’ Articles, a widely distributed brochure listing the demands of a workers’ parliament in Memmingen. Printed 25,000 times in two months, the articles called for an end to serfdom, as well as the free election of pastors and the restoration of public land use.

Woodcut title of Karsthans (1521)

To date, the 12 items The brochure is considered the first draft of human rights in Europe after the fall of Rome. Its popularity, which endangers the dominant social order, leads Martin Luther to denounce the rebellion. In Luther’s pamphlet Against the hordes of peasant murderers and thieves, he laments his responsibility and urges the princes to “let all who can strike, kill and stab, secretly or openly, remembering that nothing can be more poisonous, hurtful or evil than a rebel.” It’s like when you have to kill a mad dog. The aristocracy shut down Müntzer’s printers and beheaded him while burning other rulers at the stake and punishing associated artisans, revealing how the mastery of new technologies by the working class broke through the highest echelons of power .

Until the French Revolution, the Peasant War was the biggest uprising in Europe. Frédéric Engels, in The peasants’ war in Germany (1850), argued that its legacy as a religious conflict obscures its origins in the class struggle. “By the kingdom of God, Müntzer meant nothing other than a state of society without class differences, without private property and without superimposed state powers opposed to members of society,” he wrote. In the process, Dürer proposed a monument to the victory of the princes, perhaps ironically, by drawing a peasant without shoes atop a tall column with a sword protruding from his back.

The heroic images of the working class eventually dissipated into popular culture; However, this aesthetic subversion has survived in radical printmaking traditions – from the 20th century labor movement to contemporary zines. Meanwhile, state propaganda manifests itself in anti-union memes and social media posts condemning petty crime – promoted by corporate posts owned by the richest wage thieves in history. As the mainstream media continue to serve Western elites, this brief period of unrest illustrates the true power of the press.

Barthel Beham, “Peasant Woman with Two Jars” (1524), engraving
Title page of The Federal Ordinance of Memmingen brochure (1525)
Albrecht Dürer, “Monument to the Vanquished Peasants” (1525), woodcut

The Corcoran School of Arts and Design is seeking applications for full-time professors in art history, design, interior architecture and theater, as well as exhibition staff.

He mastered the textures of frosting, meringue, and donut frosting, but was also known for his dizzying cityscapes and pop humor.

One thought experiment that I sometimes engage in is wondering what kind of god would make the world that is represented in the work I see.

Seeing On the Edge purely in terms of art history lacks what the Quinn family and their guests have enjoyed for years, that their collection is truly all about friendship and encouragement.

Tarot in Pandemic and Revolution restores the tarot’s enduring ability to offer structure and guidance in times of social unrest.

]]> From Bella Hadid to Shanina Shaik, how some Arab stars celebrate the holiday season Sun, 26 Dec 2021 09:03:07 +0000

“I’m not afraid to tell the truth”: Jordanian filmmaker Darin Sallam discusses “Farah”

DJEDDAH: When Kuwait-born Jordanian filmmaker Darin Sallam was a child, she was told the story of Radieh, a young Palestinian woman who watched from a locked cellar as the disaster devoured her village. Hidden by her father, Radieh will bear witness to the violent displacement of her people before heading to Syria, where she passed her story on to another young girl. This girl was going to grow up, get married and share the same story with her own daughter.

“And that girl is me,” Sallam said with a smile. “History has traveled over the years to reach me. He stayed with me. When I was a kid I had this fear of closed and dark places and I kept thinking about this girl and what had happened to her. So when I grew up and became a filmmaker, I decided this would be my first feature film.

That debut album is “Farha,” which had its regional premiere at the Red Sea International Film Festival this month and received a special mention at the festival’s Yusr Awards. Inspired by the story told to Sallam as a child (although Radieh became Farha – played by newcomer Karam Taher), it addresses the horror of the Nakba (the violent expulsion of Palestinians from their homeland), which is poignantly portrayed from the unique perspective of a young girl trapped inside a single room.

The film is poignantly portrayed from the unique perspective of a young girl trapped in one room. (Getty)

To film this pivotal moment in Palestinian history from such a limited perspective was a daring directorial decision. Taking place mostly in a room (the camera never leaves that room), the film only gives its protagonist two restricted views of the outside world – a slit in the cellar door and a small hole in one of the walls. As a result, Sallam relied heavily on her cinematographer Rachel Aoun, who would act as Farha’s eyes, and her sound designer Rana Eid, who would be her ears. For Aoun and Sallam, the main challenge was to avoid repeating certain shots and angles, while Eid was given the responsibility of recreating the sound of the Nakba.

“I spoke to Rana while the script was still on paper,” says Sallam, whose previous film was the award-winning short “The Parrot”. “She read the script, we discussed it and she was drawn to the fact that the sound was written and very important in this movie. I was, like, ‘Rana, most of the time the sound is more important than the work of the camera and the picture.’ I wanted the audience to feel and hear what Farha hears and that would only be possible if the sound was perfect.

Interestingly, Sallam didn’t tell his cast where the camera was, especially while filming the film’s central traumatic sequence, which Farha is forced to endure while in hiding. This scene took four days to shoot and involved 10 actors (some trained, some not) and a tremendous amount of planning and choreography.

Sallam did not tell his actors where the camera is, especially while filming the central and traumatic footage of the film, which Farha is forced to endure while in hiding. (Provided)

“We had four days and each day we had to emotionally pick up where we left off the day before, so I was worried about them,” says Sallam. “It was exhausting and tiring already and every day we had to make sure we were in one place, got ourselves in the mood for the stage and remembered everything together.”

It was difficult, not only because of the physical demands placed on the actors, but because of the psychological weight of what was being performed. After the film’s first screening in Jeddah, actress Sameera Asir (Um Mohammad) said filming such painful scenes had affected her deeply emotionally. She was not alone. “Some of the crew were crying behind the monitor during filming, remembering their families and their stories, and the stories they had heard from their grandparents,” says Sallam.

Although a witness and not an active participant, Farha is the focal point of the film throughout. The camera spends over 50 minutes inside the basement with her, which is why Sallam knew Taher’s performance would make or break the film.

The film deals with the horror of the Nakba (the violent expulsion of Palestinians from their homeland). (Provided)

“People need to love and feel with her and have compassion on her. She must be stubborn and mean and in many ways I was very specific about what I wanted. I was looking for that raw material – a girl who had never acted but who was ready to commit. I was looking for the right girl and I knew I would see her in her eyes. Those bright, passionate eyes. And when I met Karam, it wasn’t really hearing that made me want to invest more in her. She was very shy. She was 14 at the time (15 when filming started), but I gave her homework on the Nakba and she texted me shortly after saying, “It’s your homework. asked me to do. And I said, ‘OK, she’s interested.’ “

The second time Sallam met Taher she was more comfortable and ready to learn, so they embarked on a series of one-on-one drama workshops together. “One of the things that I love is working with actors – and non-actors in particular – so I worked with Karam for a few months and she got involved,” says Sallam. “And I was testing this. Does she arrive on time? Does she cancel other stuff with her friends? It was a good sign. His commitment, his passion and his dedication were there.

Darin Sallam, director of ‘Farah’, and its lead actress Karam Taher. (Provided)

For Taher, who had attended the audition almost on a whim, it was a difficult few months of intensive learning. “After I auditioned, I went back and said to my mom, ‘No, that won’t happen. I don’t think they liked my audition or my acting, ”she says. “I was so nervous and shy at first and it was a long journey to be honest. It was Darin who was with me all the time, bringing me into character, helping me to reach that point where I was comfortable. I felt like I had to open up to Darin, and I did. I trusted him so much. I opened up to her more than to anyone else, which helped me express all my anger, feelings and emotions so that I could finish a scene just the way she wanted.

His most difficult scenes were two separations, says Taher. The first from her father (Ashraf Barhom), the second from her best friend Farida (Tala Gammoh). However, the film also includes scenes rarely discussed in regional cinema, including urination and Farha’s first period.

“I wanted to show these things because it’s natural and that’s what would happen to you or me if we were in his shoes,” says Sallam. “I wasn’t afraid to do it, I was afraid Karam wouldn’t feel comfortable, so I had to work with her and made sure she was comfortable with the team and that there was no one in the room except me and the camera. “

A lot of people didn’t want “Farha” done, Sallam says. The reasons why will become immediately obvious to anyone looking at it. Although the events of 1948 are covered in countless books, poems, articles, and documentaries, the Nakba is rarely shown in fictionalized cinematic form.

“I’m not afraid to tell the truth. We have to do it because movies live and we die, ”Sallam says. “That’s why I decided to make this film. Not because I am political, but because I am faithful to the story that I have heard.