German Literature – Kafkas Diasporasi Sat, 19 Nov 2022 16:50:50 +0000 en-US hourly 1 German Literature – Kafkas Diasporasi 32 32 The struggle to unearth the world’s first author Sat, 19 Nov 2022 16:50:50 +0000

About forty-three hundred years ago, in an area we now call Iraq, a sculptor chiselled out of a disk of white limestone the image of a woman presiding over a temple ritual. She wears a long ceremonial dress and a headdress. There are two male servants behind her and one in front, pouring a libation on an altar. On the back of the disc, an inscription identifies her as Enheduanna, a high priestess and the daughter of King Sargon.

Some scholars believe that the priestess was also the world’s first recorded author. A clay tablet preserves the words of a long narrative poem: “I took my place in the sanctuary’s abode, / I was high priestess, I, Enheduanna. In Sumer, the ancient civilization of southern Mesopotamia from which writing was born, the texts were anonymous. If Enheduanna wrote these words, then it marks the beginning of authorship, the beginning of rhetoric, even the beginning of autobiography. To put her precedence in perspective, she lived fifteen hundred years before Homer, seventeen hundred years before Sappho, and two thousand years before Aristotle, who is traditionally considered the father of the rhetorical tradition.

The poem, written in wedge-shaped cuneiform impressions, describes a time of crisis in the life of the priestess. Enheduanna’s father, Sargon, united the city-states of Mesopotamia to create what is sometimes called the first empire in history. His domain stretched from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea, encompassing modern day Kuwait, Iraq, Jordan and Syria, comprising over sixty-five cities, each with its own religious traditions, administrative system and local identity. . Although Sargon ruled from Akkad in the north, he appointed his daughter High Priestess at the Temple of the Moon God in the southern city of Ur. The position, though outwardly religious, was in practice political, helping to unify disparate parts of the empire. After Sargon’s death, the kingdom was torn apart by rebellion; the throne went briefly to Enheduanna’s brothers, then to his nephew. In the poem, a usurper named Lugalanne – a military general who may have led an uprising in Ur – drives Enheduanna from her place in the temple.

“He turned this temple into a house of ill repute. / Forcing his way like an equal, he dared approach me in his lust!” said Enheduanna. Driven out of the city, she wanders in the desert. “He took me through a land of thorns. / He took away from me the noble diadem of my holy office, / He gave me a dagger: “This is just for you”, he said. The full meaning of the usurper’s crime is lost in a literal translation, but the language suggests sexual violation. (The verbs, one translator noted, are the same used elsewhere to express sexual advances.) It also suggests incitement to suicide. Giving him a dagger, Lugalanne encourages him to commit suicide. “It’s just for you.”

Enheduanna’s salvation depends on her rhetorical skills, but she finds that her powers have dried up. “My once-sweet mouth has now turned to foam, / My power to please hearts is reduced to dust,” she says. To overcome this blockage, she first appeals to the moon god, but he ignores her: “My moonlight doesn’t care about me!” / He leaves me to perish in this place of deceived hopes. Then she turns to Inanna, the goddess of love, sex and war, offering a long hymn to her glory: “My lady! This country will again bow down to your battle cry! Enheduanna’s crisis is resolved by such praise and the creation of the poem itself, which is called “The Exaltation of Inanna”. In a surprisingly awkward passage, the work of writing is compared to the pains of childbirth. “It fills me, it overflows me, Exalted Lady, as I bear you. / What I entrusted to you in the dark of night, a singer will perform to you in the light of day!”

Enheduanna’s nephew eventually put down the rebellion and Enheduanna was restored to his office. She attributes her rescue to Inanna – “Know that you are laying waste to the rebel land!” – but the poem also suggests that Enheduanna, by exalting Inanna, played a part in the salvation of Ur. Goddess and priestess are closely related, the priestess being in part the earthly representation of the divine. The poem is political, inscribing the relationship between power and language, but it is also deeply personal.

In addition to “The Exaltation”, two other texts have been attributed to Enheduanna: “A hymn to Inanna”, which mentions Enheduanna by name, and “Inanna and Ebih”, which has been attributed to her for stylistic reasons. His claim is also attached to a collection of forty-two religious poems – hymns addressed to the temples of various city-states. Taken together, the hymns form what Yale scholars William Hallo and JJA van Dijk have called a “major piece of Mesopotamian theology”, uniting the many cults and deities of the region and making Enheduanna “a kind of systematic theologian. The cycle ends with a postscript: “The compiler of the tablet is Enheduanna./ My King, something has been created that no one has ever created before!”

In ancient Mesopotamia, the works of Enheduanna were celebrated and were even part of the school curriculum of the edubbas, or schools of scribes, which trained future priests and officials in cuneiform writing and Sumerian grammar. For hundreds of years students learned by carving the words of Enheduanna on clay tablets, and about a hundred such copies of “The Exaltation of Inanna” have survived. But since their discovery, in the mid-twentieth century, scholars have fiercely debated the authorship of Enheduanna. Did the priestess really write these works? Is the idea of ​​a woman at the beginning of the written tradition – two thousand years before the Golden Age of Greece – too good to be true? This winter, an exhibition at the Morgan Library & Museum in New York, “She Who Wrote: Enheduanna and Women of Mesopotamia,” will attempt to give the priestess her due. “You ask anyone you know and they’ll tell you the first author is Herodotus or some other man,” Sidney Babcock, the show’s curator, told me. “It always amazed me. No one will ever come with her.

The city of Ur was first excavated in the fifties. But much of it remained unexplored until 1922, when a British archaeologist, Leonard Woolley, led a joint expedition funded by the British Museum and the University of Pennsylvania. Wooley was drawn to Ur as the biblical home of Abraham and ancient pagan kings. (His account of the excavations, “Ur of the Chaldeans: A Record of Seven Years of Excavation,” alludes to Genesis: “And Terah took Abram…and Sarai his daughter-in-law, the wife of his son Abram; and they came out with them from Ur in Chaldea.”) Woolley’s big find was the royal cemetery, where his team unearthed the tombs of kings and queens, as well as jewelry, weapons, pottery, instruments of music and other treasures.

Ur was also, of course, Enheduanna’s adopted home. In 1927, five years after excavations began, excavators discovered the ruins of a temple. Inside they found the defaced shards of a stone disc – the disc representing Enheduanna – and nearby three other objects naming the priestess: cylinder seals belonging to her servants. Elsewhere in the temple were clay tablets covered with cuneiform writing. “Here is definitive proof that the priestesses kept a school on their premises,” Woolley wrote. But he missed the significance of the find, calling the temple a “convent” and a “harem”. Some of the tablets found at Ur were copies of the Enheduanna texts, but Woolley, attentive to the history of the Great Men – political dynasties, biblical patriarchs – seems to have been uninterested in the priestess, treating her as an appendage without consequence of his famous father. His book doesn’t even name Enheduanna, referring to her simply as Sargon’s daughter.

In the years that followed, archaeologists and looters unearthed other tablets with the words of Enheduanna, in cities like Nippur and Larsa. But his work was not transcribed, published and attributed until the late fifties and sixties. In 1968, the first translation of his writings from Sumerian into English appeared. “We can now discern a body of poetry of the very first order that not only reveals the name of its author, but describes that author to us in a truly autobiographical way,” Hallo and van Dijk wrote in their introduction to the translation. “In the person of Enheduanna, we are confronted with a woman who was at the same time princess, priestess and poetess.” The couple acknowledged that the picture put together by academics may be incomplete. “We do not yet know the full extent of Enheduanna’s literary work”, they write, “but the imprint of his style and his convictions is so strong in the poems that one can certainly attribute to him that it will perhaps one day be possible to detect his paternity also in other less well-preserved pieces.

While Hallo and van Dijk noted that Enheduanna might have written more than has been discovered – Akkad, the capital of Sargon’s empire, has yet to be excavated – others downplayed its claim. British scholar W. G. Lambert raised the possibility of a ghostwriter, suggesting that at least one of Enheduanna’s texts could have been written by a scribe. (Sumerian kings often had scribes compose for them.) “Our emotional response to ancient texts is not necessarily the best standard of judgment,” he wrote later, in 2001. Other scholars have questioned Enheduanna on the grounds that the surviving versions of his work, copied by the students of edubbas, dates five hundred years after his death; no copies of his time survive, and in a few cases the texts contain place names and vocabulary later than his time. This could simply be the result of changes in the transmission process of the scribes – alterations usually accompany the reproduction of old accounts – but some see this as a reason for skepticism. “She speaks in the first person, but that’s not the same as being the author,” Paul Delnero, professor of Assyriology at Johns Hopkins University, told me. Enheduanna could be a cult figure honored by later writers, her name being invoked in the works to lend them authority.

WOW2: Women Pioneers of November and Events in Our History Sat, 05 Nov 2022 22:29:02 +0000
“Feminism is the radical notion that women are human beings.” – Cheris Kramarae, feminist studies scholar

“Women solve problems, and often
we don’t get much credit for this because
the typical image of a leader is someone
which is loud, obnoxious, chest-pounding.
It’s not my view of what’s true
leadership is; true leaders are those
who work with great commitment to
do something.
Mazie Hironofirst woman elected
in the United States Senate from Hawaii


WOW2 is a four times a month sister blog to This week in the war on women. This edition covers stories from From November 1 to November 8.

The next episode of WOW2 will take place on Saturday, November 12, 2022.


“A theory in the flesh means a
where the physical realities of our
lives – our skin color, the earth or
concrete on which we grew, our
sexual desires – all merge
create a policy born out of necessity.
Here we try to fill the
contradictions in our experience:
we are colored
a white feminist movement.
We are the feminists among
the people of our culture.
We are often lesbians
among straight people.
We make this bridge in
naming ourselves and
telling our stories in
our own words.
Michelle Cliff,
Jamaican-American author
of Claim an identity
They taught me to despise


“I can’t afford the luxury of despair
or pessimism. We still have to hope.
We are a timeless people, we have lived
in a country out of time. We suffered
the invasion of two hundred years,
and we will continue to suffer. But we
will survive…”
Oodgeroo Noonuccal,
Australian Aboriginal poet, artist,
educator, activist and politician



The goal of WOW2 is to discover and honor accomplished women, including those who have been ignored or marginalized in most history books, and to mark moments in women’s history. It also serves as a reference archive on women’s history.

These pioneers have much to teach us about perseverance in the face of overwhelming odds. I hope you find as much inspiration as I do in reclaiming our past..


will be posting shortly, so be sure to check it out next, and
catch up latest dispatches from the front.

Natural revelation and natural selection Wed, 02 Nov 2022 23:31:01 +0000

Image: William Wordsworth, by Benjamin Haydon, Public Domain, via Wikimedia Commons.

It has long been recognized that the many hymns to nature in the poetic works of William Wordsworth (1770-1850) convey an implicit belief in natural theology. This concept was no stranger to Darwin himself in its abstract form following his study of William Paley Natural theology in his college days. There is even evidence that the young Darwin’s explorations brought with them a more direct, quasi-Wordsworthian awareness of the divine revelations of Nature than he could have gained from reading Paley alone.1

In his mature years, by contrast, there are fewer indications that he paid much heed to Wordsworth’s injunction to his readers to “Let nature be your teacher”. At this point, the influences of the two poles of, on the one hand, the poetry of nature of Wordsworth and, on the other, of Darwinian theory ― the two totalizing visions of nature of the nineteenth century ― seemed destined to enter in an inevitable conflict. Wordsworth’s view was clearly of nature as the source of spiritual guidance while Darwin presented nature only as a brutal struggle for existence unredeemed by a higher purpose. It is this binary, and the debate in British public life to which it has given rise, that I wish to analyze in a series of articles.

Next“Darwin, Wordsworth and Natural Theology.


  1. Once during his young expedition aboard the Beagle he was even moved to describe a virgin forest as “a temple filled with the varied products of the God of nature.” No one can remain in these solitudes without being moved and not feeling that there is more to man than the simple breath of his body. This point was noted by AD Martin in his Wordsworth’s Religion (London: Allen and Unwin, 1936), p. 14-16.

neil thomas

Neil Thomas is Senior Reader at Durham University, England, and a long-time member of the British Rationalist Association. He studied classical studies and European languages ​​at the universities of Oxford, Munich and Cardiff before joining the German section of the School of European Languages ​​and Literatures at Durham University in 1976. His teaching involved a wide range of specialties, including Germanic. Philology, Medieval Literature, Enlightenment Literature and Philosophy, and Modern German History and Literature. He also taught modules on the propagandistic use of the German language used by both the Nazis and officials of the former German Democratic Republic. He has published over 40 articles in a number of peer-reviewed journals and half a dozen single-author books, the latest of which were Reading the Nibelungenlied (1995), Diu Crone and the Medieval Arthurian Cycle (2002) and “Wigalois” by Wirnt von Gravenberg. Intertextuality and Interpretation (2005). He has also edited a number of volumes, including Myth and its Legacy in European Literature (1996) and German Studies at the Millennium (1999). He was the Brach UK President of the International Arthurian Society (2002-5) and remains a member of several learned societies.

To share

Key words

Charles DarwinDarwinian theoryGreat BritainHMS BeagleNatural theologyNatural theology (book)naturespiritualityThe Religion of WordsworthWilliam PaleyWilliam WordsworthWordsworth v Darwin (series)

Notable New Hampshire neighbors who died last week Fri, 28 Oct 2022 21:34:25 +0000 crawls New Hampshire funeral home websites weekly and randomly selects some of our friends, relatives and neighbors to be featured in this column. People listed here have died within the past week and have a public or charitable connection to their community. now offers obituaries through the service. We see this as part of our public service mission. Click on here or on the Obituaries tab at the top of our homepage to find out more. And if you know anyone from New Hampshire who should be in this column, please send your suggestions to

Well-known Hooksett car dealership John O. Danos, 84, from Rye, died on October 20, 2022. He used the knowledge he gained working with his father in the shoe business to create and operate several successful businesses, including The Red Onion Restaurant in the center -city of Manchester and Corvettes Unlimited in Hooksett, which had Roy Orbison, ZZ Top, Jim Rice and Reggie Jackson as customers. A daredevil at heart from an early age, he loved motorcycles and racing and continued to ride his Harleys well into his 80s. (Remick and Gendron Funeral Home)

Dr. Robert Cimis Jr.., 56, of Bow, died Oct. 21, 2022. A graduate of Dartmouth Medical School, he was a gastroenterologist who practiced at Cheshire Medical Center in Keene, Carolina East Medical Center in New Bern, NC, Concord Gastroenterology in Concord and Littleton Regional Health Care in Littleton. (Bennett Funeral Home)

Olive “Ollie” Mae Lafond, 80, of Concord, died Oct. 24, 2022. A U.S. Air Force veteran, she spent 27 years working for New England Telephone and volunteered for several organizations including the Telephone Pioneers, AARP Driver’s Safety Program as an instructor and later state coordinator. . She was an avid golfer winning various championships at Derryfield Country Club. (Bennett Funeral Home)

George M. Ahearn, 88, of Raymond, died Oct. 21, 2022. He was a longtime employee of United Engineers and Constructors in Philadelphia, now a division of Raytheon. He traveled all over the United States building power plants. Projects included Longwood in Boston, Three Mile Island, WPPSS in Washington, Seabrook Nuclear Generating Station and Clear Air Force Station, Alaska. He was a longtime member of the Robertsville, NJ Volunteer Fire Department and the Knights of Columbus. He was also a member of the Lions Club and supported the Raymond Youth Athletic Association. (Brepitt Funeral Home)

Janice E. (Todd) O’Rourke, 90, of North Sutton, died October 23, 2022. She worked for the CIA in Washington, DC and later owned Ponkapoag Kennels at Warner where she bred Brittany spaniels and board dogs. Later, she worked for Kearsarge Regional High School in Sutton. She has volunteered at Hospice House in Concord, the Currier Museum of Art in Manchester and the Capital Center for the Arts in Concord.. (Chadwick Funeral Service)

John Edward Pearson, 89, of Nashua, died October 21, 2022. In 1968, he was voted Man of the Year by the Nashua Jaycees for his distinguished community service. Throughout his career, he completed numerous government contracts as a general contractor, including rebuilding and gold leafing the dome structure of the New Hampshire State House and replacing marble floors. He rebuilt the United States Navy prison in Kittery, Maine when it was occupied by 851 prisoners. He rehabilitated housing for the US Air Force, built barracks for the US Marines, and built a nuclear storage facility for the US Navy. As a developer and builder, he built thousands of single-family homes, condominiums, and apartments throughout the Northeast, including in 1969 Regency Park in Nashua. He had an office in Lagos, Nigeria. (Dumont-Sullivan Funeral Home)

Yvonne Crocker, 97, from Auburn, died on October 20, 2022. Originally from Amsterdam, after the World War she worked for KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, traveling to many European capitals to set up reservation systems. She accepted a one-year assignment at UNH in a government-sponsored German program, and in 1973 was hired by the Concord School District as a foreign language teacher. In 1984, she also completed course work and residency at Vanderbilt University for the doctorate. program. She taught evening classes in German and Spanish at the Manchester Institute of Arts and Sciences in the 1970s. In 1974 she was awarded the Urkunde by the Bundes Republik Deutschland for outstanding achievement in the study of the language and of German literature. In 1981, she established an exchange program with a gymnasium in Wegberg, Germany. She was a longtime and former full member of MENSA, a member and former state president of Delta Kappa Gamma, an international honor society for female educators. She was shortlisted for their “Woman of Achievement 2016” award. She was a 50+ year member of Concord Grange #322. (Durning, Bykowski & Young Funeral Home)

Linda Keller, 76, of Rochester, died Oct. 21, 2022. She was a master teacher with more than 35 years of service in the Rochester School District. She took pride in making middle school science classes both accessible and fun for her students.. (RM Edgerly & Son Funeral Home)

Michael B. Bresnahan, 84, of Canaan, died Oct. 24, 2022. A U.S. Army veteran and licensed electrician, he owned MB Electric in Berlin. He has volunteered with the Boy Scouts of America, the Androscoggin Valley United Way, the Berlin-Gorham Chamber of Commerce, the American Legion and the Irish-American Cultural Institute. (Jenkins & Newman Funeral Home)

Nancy C.Rupp, 94, of Newmarket, died October 24, 2022. She was an assistant professor at the University of New Hampshire for many years. She also volunteered as a counselor at Camp Wyonegonic where she was known as “Teddy”. Nancy loved the outdoors, sports and spending time with friends. (Kent & Pelczar Funeral Home & Crematory)

Jane A. Weiland, 88, of Durham, died October 22, 2022. She taught elementary schools for 30 years in New York, Pennsylvania, North Carolina and New Hampshire at Barrington, Dover, Northwood, and for 15 years at Oyster River School. System (Mast Way, Moharimet and Oyster River elementary schools). She retired in 1994. She was a member of the Community Church of Durham, the Christian Education Cabinet, was a teacher in the Sunday School program and was a member of the Visiting Committee. Through the UNH outreach program, she was a touring director for 11 years for the Active Retirement Association. She was a member of the Silver Squares and also a member of Oasis in Exeter. (Kent & Pelczar Funeral Home and Crematorium)

Michael “Mike” George Stevens, 65, of West Ossipee, died Oct. 21, 2022. He was the owner of Big Moose RV, Inc. in Ossipee, and prior to that was a salesman for Ray’s Marina for many years. He and his son Michael owned the Bearcamp River Campground in West Ossipee. (CE Peaslee & Sons, Inc.)

James Lee Miller Sr. 90, of Dover, died October 24, 2022. A United States Navy veteran, he served in the Korean War on the USS Wisconsin and USS Baltimore. He retired from Portsmouth Dockyard as Head of Nuclear Inspection. While working at the shipyard, he was co-owner and operator of Clam Haven, a drive-in restaurant in Dover which operated in the fifties and sixties. He volunteered for the Assembly of God Church in Dover and Davenport, Florida. He was Minister for Youth for many years in Dover. He was an active member of the Lion’s Club and served as club president. (Wiggin-Purdy-McCooey-Dion Funeral Home)

Dr Lauren Gray Gilstrap, 38, of Hanover, died Oct. 21, 2022. A member of Phi Beta Kappa and a Truman Fellow at the University of Texas at Austin, she attended Harvard Medical School and was on the faculty at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center in the Heart and Vascular Center, with a cross-appointment at the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice. She was an assistant professor at the Geisel School of Medicine in Dartmouth, and in 2021 became head of the advanced cardiology and transplantation program at the Heart and Vascular Center. (Ricker Funeral Homes and Crematorium)

Phillip N. Straight, 76, of Merrimack, died Oct. 25, 2022. He was a member of the Army National Guard and retired from Iowa State Soil Conservation to recover mines. He served as the State Representative for Merrimack representing Hillsborough District 21 from 2012 to 2016. (Rivet Funeral Home and Crematorium)

Betty Ruth Jensen95, from Gilford, died on October 25, 2022. She and her husband Milton owned Boulder Lodge Cottages in Alton Bay from 1975 to 2001. She was active in Bolton Congregational Church, Boy Scouts, and often called herself the mom’s cab. for all the activities of his children. (Wilkinson-Beane-Simoneau-Paquette funeral home and cremation services)

Joan Letvin, 99, of Bradford, died October 27, 2022. She established Performing Artists Associates (PAA) of New England in 1977, and her efforts spawned other offices that provided both an understanding of the arts management process for young artists and an affordable resource. for audiences across the United States. In 1992 the Lettvin concert series began in Bradford, when her husband, Theodore Lettvin performed a concert to raise funds for the Bradford Meeting House. The concerts have continued since 1992. (Holt-Woodbury Funeral Home & Cremation Service)

Eleanor M. Lewis, 92, of Rochester, passed away October 26, 2022. She was active in the Meaderboro Community Church as a Sunday School teacher and Sunday School Treasurer for many years. Eleanor was also part of the church’s missionary support group. She volunteered at Frisbie Memorial Hospital. (RM Edgerly & Son Funeral Home)

Big spike in the Barbie doll market Wed, 26 Oct 2022 10:33:47 +0000 Dr Lori Verderame

Barbie has been making headlines lately ahead of the upcoming release of the movie “Barbie.”

Barbie, which was introduced in the late 1950s and skyrocketed in popularity in the 1960s, has recently made great strides in the collectibles market. German Bild Lilli dolls, post-war adult fashion dolls, first inspired the birth of Barbie. These German dolls have exploded in value on the auction market.

Recently, a Bild Lilli doll sold for a whopping $5,000, making all Barbie collectors sit up and take notice. From where I sit, appraising 50,000 items each year, this German Bild Lilli Doll Auction predicts a big spike looming on the horizon in the Barbie doll market ahead of the new “Barbie” movie.

The American Barbie doll market has responded with great interest in many antique and vintage Barbie dolls made by Mattel Inc. The appraised value of a vintage collectible Barbie is high, well into the thousands for a single doll. The original Barbie #1 with her black and white striped swimsuit (1959) still brings high values.

North Pointe School in Southgate launches International Baccalaureate program – The News Herald Sun, 23 Oct 2022 06:04:01 +0000

North Pointe School in Southgate launched an International Baccalaureate program for Kindergarten to Grade 4 this fall to create lifelong learners who are compassionate people who respect and celebrate differences.

The goal of the International Baccalaureate or IB program is to educate children to love learning, to ask questions and to be compassionate. It strives to promote a better and more peaceful world by promoting respect for other cultures and celebrating those differences.

Lambert Okma, 72, of Bloomfield Hills, a consultant with extensive IB experience who is working with Southgate Community School District to develop the curriculum, said he was working with Superintendent Sharon Irvine to strengthen the district.

“It’s moving forward on a variety of fronts, even things like signage on buildings to make a better impression and improve the look of buildings, and improve sports programs,” he said. “She really wants to make Southgate a top district in the Downriver area.”

North Pointe School in Southgate offers an International Baccalaureate program for students in kindergarten through fourth grade. (Photo courtesy of North Pointe School Facebook page)

Okma said Irvine knows about the IB curriculum and wants to use it as the centerpiece of his school district rejuvenation.

He said North Pointe Elementary School, 18635 Bowie St., which closed a few years ago, was chosen to launch an IB program for kindergarten through fourth grade.

“There’s a pretty rigorous application process,” Okma said. “With IB, you have to go through a full authorization process, with multiple steps, including the visit, and you have a consultant assigned to you,” he said. “So they’re at the application stage, where they’re an applicant school, and eventually you can become a full IB program.”

He said North Pointe is an elementary school program.

“The IB really took off after World War II, when these international schools around the world ended up with students from multiple countries,” Okma said. “Before World War II, most international schools served a single client population.”